Until 31 December 1985; Unless the treaty is replaced earlier by an agreement that further restricts strategic offensive weapons A major breakthrough for this agreement took place at the Vladivostok Summit in November 1974, when President Gerald Ford and Secretary General Leonid Brezhnev reached agreement on the basic framework of the SALT II agreement. The elements of this agreement were declared to enter into force until 1985. Nixon was proud that, through his diplomatic skills, he reached an agreement that his predecessors could not reach. Nixon and Kissinger planned to combine arms control with détente and solve other pressing problems through what Nixon called “liaison.” David Tal argues that among the resulting complex of agreements (SALT I), the most important were the Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty and the Interim Agreement and Protocol on the Limitation of Strategic Offensive Weapons. Both were developed by Pres. Richard M. signed. Nixon for the United States and Leonid Brezhnev, General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, for the USSR on 26 May 1972 at a summit in Moscow. Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) I: Signed in 1972 Status: replaced by SALT II; The United States withdrew from the ABM Treaty in 2002 SALT negotiations began in 1969 and culminated in the signing of two documents in 1972: an interim agreement and the ABM (Anti-Ballistic Missile) Treaty. It was the first agreement between the United States and the Soviet Union to limit their nuclear arsenals. Even after the Vladivostok Agreements, the two nations could not resolve the other two open issues of SALT I: the number of strategic bombers and the total number of warheads in each nation`s arsenal. The first was complicated by the Soviet bomber, which American negotiators thought could reach the United States, but which the Soviets did not want to include in the SALT negotiations. Meanwhile, the Soviets tried unsuccessfully to restrict U.S.
use of air-launched cruise missiles (ALCM). The verification also separated the two countries, but they eventually agreed on the use of national technical means (NTM), including the collection of electronic signals known as telemetry and the use of photo reconnaissance satellites. On 17 June 1979, Carter and Brezhnev sign the SALT II Treaty in Vienna. SALT II limited the total number of nuclear forces of the two countries to 2,250 launchers and imposed a host of other restrictions on deployed strategic nuclear forces, including MIRVs. In August 1972, the U.S. Senate overwhelmingly approved the deal. SALT-I, as it was called, served as the basis for all subsequent discussions on arms restrictions. Intensive research has been undertaken to find ways to examine possible agreements without the need for access to the territory of the other party. Both the ABM Treaty and the Interim Agreement stipulate that compliance must be achieved by “national technical means of verification”. In addition, the agreements contain provisions that are important steps to strengthen security against violations: both parties undertake not to interfere with national technical means of verification.
In addition, both countries undertake not to use deliberate obfuscation measures to obstruct the review. Strategic Offensive Reductions (TRI) Treaty: Signed in 2002 Status: Replaced by a new START Signed in May 2002, the IRR was in force from June 2003 to February 2011, when it was replaced by New START. While START I has restricted warheads through its delivery systems, SORT has limited operational warheads. As part of the fate, the two sides agreed to limit their nuclear arsenals to between 1,700 and 2,200 operational warheads each. It did not contain any review measures. Instead, the U.S. and Russia agreed to rely on START I measures to ensure compliance. The parties also signed a protocol to the treaty in which they agreed on additional restrictions. Parties have undertaken not to deploy ICBM mobile launchers or to test ICBMs for such launchers; not to use cruise missiles with a range of more than 600 km on launchers at sea or on land-based launchers; no flight test cruise missiles with a range of more than 600 km equipped with multiple targeted warheads independently of launchers based at sea or land; and not to test or use ASBMs. The Protocol has also been supplemented by concerted declarations and joint agreements laying down its specific provisions or laying down specific conditions.
Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) I: Signed in 1991 Status: Expired in 2009; The signing of the INF Treaty accelerated negotiations on START I, signed in July 1991 and entered into force in December 1994. The treaty prevented the two countries from deploying more than 6,000 warheads in addition to 1,600 intercontinental ballistic missiles and bombers. START I was a vast and complex treaty that led to the reduction of about 80% of strategic nuclear weapons at the time. Another important aspect of START I was the provisions on verification and transparency, such as the exchange of data on weapons and strategic facilities as well as inspections. However, a broad coalition of conservative Republicans and Democrats became increasingly skeptical of the Soviet Union`s crackdown on internal disagreements, its increasingly interventionist foreign policy, and the verification process enshrined in the treaty. On December 17, 1979, 19 Carter Senators wrote that “the ratification of a SALT II Treaty will not reverse the trends of military balance that are detrimental to the United States.” On December 25, the Soviets invaded Afghanistan, and on January 3, 1980, Carter asked the Senate not to consider SALT II for its advice and approval, and it was never ratified. Washington and Moscow then pledged to abide by the terms of the agreement, even though it did not enter into force. Carter`s successor, Ronald Reagan, a vocal critic of SALT II during the 1980 presidential campaign, agreed to join SALT II until its expiration on December 31, 1985, while pursuing the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START), arguing that research on the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was consistent with the 1972 ABM Treaty.
SALT I is the common name for the Agreement on Strategic Arms Limitation Talks signed on 26 May 1972. SALT I froze the number of strategic ballistic missile launchers at the existing level and planned the addition of new submarine ballistic missile (SLBM) launchers only after the dismantling of the same number of intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) and older SLBM launchers.  SALT I also limited land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles located from the northeastern border of the continental United States to the northwestern border of the continental USSR.  In addition, SALT I limited to 50 the number of SLBM-enabled submarines that NATO and the United States could operate with up to 800 SLBM launchers. If the United States or NATO increased this number, the USSR could respond by increasing its arsenal by the same amount. Both agreements were accompanied by a series of “agreed statements” adopted and initialled by the heads of delegation. When the two agreements were submitted to Congress, they were also accompanied by joint agreements and unilateral declarations during the negotiations. These should clarify specific provisions of the agreements or parts of the negotiating protocol.
The United States had not increased its deployment of strategic missiles since 1967 (when its intercontinental ballistic missiles numbered 1,054 and its SLBMs numbered 656), but it conducted a vigorous program to equip the missiles with independently targeted multiple re-entry vehicles (MIRVs). “MIRVs” allow a single missile to carry a series of warheads aimed at distinct targets. .